What are the design criteria

For fpc2 mechanics, the fpc1 microscope itself is convenient: generally speaking, it has the advantage of not only measuring small size but also applying it to other USES. Observe the small cutting tool edge when we need to use it, at the same time, the edge of the wear or sharpening, or qualitative measurement on the surface of the finished product – see tool marks, vibration and so on all need use it, but, we also want to know if there is any other possible this. Once there is fpc5, a platform is available, and we can use this platform to accurately locate a camera installed on the main axis. Command the factory regularly to the interval between a series of photographs taken for us, it is possible to happen, and we can also from the image to build a larger composite photo – this and MapQuest and Google maps and another popular Internet map in the application of similar satellite images are very similar. To accurately measure many mechanical parts, this fpc6 will have adequate size and resolution.

Will be affordable fpc2 microscopy combined with a simple fpc3 system is fpc2 scanner project goals, as well as a set of CNC milling machine for fpc5 control or router plug-in application of innovation is its goal. In this system, we can scale and scan the two-dimensional geometry to make measurements more accurate, and the geometry of fpc6 system export can be accurately measured. The use of the optical centring device of the system is also studied. In this ability, it can be proved that it is useful, but we can see that it is also limited to the application.

What are the design criteria?

The design of fpc2 scanner has several objectives:

This is the engineering document-fpc1 scanner,Fpc2 CNC scanner

This is the engineering document-fpc1 scanner

Fpc2 CNC scanner

This is an engineering system which is suitable for the low-cost optical measurement and two-dimensional reverse of the numerical control factory.

Here’s an introduction to it.

In the past few years, we have realized that some of the low-cost fpc3 cameras and fpc4’s interesting marriages have been realized. The main applications are optical centering devices. Our colleague John Prentice (John Prentice) just mentioned one thing, that is he for your shop bought a USB microscope, and he was very surprised, for this kind of ability, this time, the beginning is fpc3 scanner project. A quick survey here shows that cheap USB microscopes are now widely used in medicine, biology and other fields as the cheap fpc5 microscope.

If you want to complete the direct measurement of the optical image, usually with a mesh grid can be done, the grid can be placed within the scope of the position is in the view of, its role is to estimate the measured values. Observers can make a fairly accurate linear measurement because they can make accurate measurements based on the size of the grid and the degree of attention required. Of course, the size we can measure is limited to the range of vision. If the wing’s width is to be measured by you, in some ways, this is not a problem; In manufacturing, however, the same is often required if, when measured in larger sizes, there is no better accuracy. If it is a typical manufacturing artifact, what it usually does is call for tolerance dimensions. The key feature is 001.

What are performance expectations

What are performance expectations?

It is the limitation of the optical centering device.

When we move the focal plane to a different level, the very frustrating phenomenon is the “roaming” of the optical center. Two different reasons are determined by our experience:

First, the first reason is the inherent rebound in mechanical focusing mechanisms of these ranges. If you want to move the lens, you need a microscope to use the inner line. There are two cases of this thread, the first one is molded, but if it is not molded, it is machined. Although, to some extent, a thread can be processed to lower roaming the severity of the problem is, but after our test show that there are still some wandering, this makes it impossible will focus on the dial to return to the same location will happen, to refocus on the same focal plane is unable to do it. Although high-end camera technology can be used to solve this problem, it is not realistic to add thousands of dollars in cost.

The second one is more subtle, but also very interesting. For accurate scanning, there is no need for the absolute alignment of the light axis of the microscope, but the influence of optical alignment is still real. As we all know, this calibration does not mean that the optical axis is parallel to the main axis. After the alignment, the optical axis and the main axis overlap in the focal plane is what we know. Very unrealistic is combining scope and main shaft axis, the typical consumer electronics fpc6 sensor also be offset, the offset position is on the optical axis, makes the third pile errors were caused, and cannot be easily overcome the difficulties. It is very impractical to correct these problems and produce a cost to align the system, which is, of course, the cost of the fpc2 scanner system.

The contents of figure 12 are shown below. The ability of the variable focal length to maintain the center on different focal planes is shown by these two graphs. In this example, we can see that the scope is aligned to the center of the hole in 200x (top image). When the working distance is increased, the image is refocused on the 60x (bottom image), and the center wanderings occur.

What is figure 13? What is the optical and the centering axis? We can see that they are 50 x zoom in on the focal plane of the joint event, but if amplified to 20 x change, will make a center error, unless the camera to aim at, they can overlap again.

What is the telephoto lens in practice

We are now trying to simulate a remote lens system with a low-cost fpc1 camera.

The basis of many industrial metering and measurement systems is fpc2. There are a lot of unusual features is FPC have, an image can be generated by it, and, as we all know, its size and shape and the positions of the lens distance and field of view is no relationship. The reason is that the special telephoto lens only focuses on the light parallel to the optic axis.

What is the telephoto lens in practice?

Image distortion can be reduced, and the perspective amplification effect caused by object position change can be eliminated.

However, fpc2 also has disadvantages, which are both large and expensive, but close to a fpc2, we can use the fpc3 scanner. This step is accomplished by limiting the useful field of view to the center of each image in the construction of the fpc4 scan. How did this area of the image come into being? It is produced by light that is almost parallel to the optic axis, so a fpc2 is simulated by us, and we can look at figure 7 below.

This is figure 7. If we want to simulate the TV system, we can make fpc2 complete by limiting the available viewing field.

The incident from all angles is the lens focusing light.

If we build a fpc2 that is the way it is, then it focuses only on the light that is parallel to the optic axis. That makes the image the same size that happens, no matter what the distance from the lens is.

If you want to simulate fpc3, you can make the fpc4 scanner complete by limiting the field to the center of the image.

fpc2 scanner system-fpc6 scanner,individual pixels

What we can see in figure 17. The first is the influence of distance of focal plane on the observed quantity. Ten percent of the field is being scanned.

Here’s our summary of the project.

In September 2009, we started the beta testing of the first fpc2 scanner system on a set of external client sites. We can also see that the majority of the reception is positive. Although compared with the original design, there may be some slight change, however, its performance, we are very satisfied, and, in January 2010, the product was released by us.

The two – dimensional reverse engineering of 2D parts, which are proved to be direct optical measurement, is the fpc6 scanner.

Now let’s take a look at the lower right corner, which is much less focused on the grid. In this case, it’s not so obvious that it’s a straight line. So if you look at this image, you can still do this estimate, which is the center of the line, but this estimate you can do it by looking at more individual pixels. Five or six pixels may need to be considered as the correct number so that the central location of the row can be determined.

Remember, returning the image after the scan is done is something you can’t do. Scanning system will consider this problem, it takes into account the problem through the guide you to put the camera close to the work done, so for the resolution you want, it can be met. The number of pixels in the specified, In this case, more personal images are needed because of the need to create synthetic Mosaic images.

The camera provided by the fpc8 system has a basic limit, which is about 2 or 3 pixels, with the aim of looking for edges. If you are not careful to focus your camera and the subject is not flat or there is a problem with the lighting, the result could be worse. The quality of the images using the default value of 2.5 is our recommendation, but if the scan shows that more details are what you want to do, then this number also needs to be increased.

What is the effect of the depth of field

Explanation: not surprisingly, the benefits is to increase the pixel density can improve the accuracy, although it is a price, the price of it is a larger data file size and longer time to scan. In carefully designed experiments, the ability to accurately measure dimensions in a numerical control scanner is optimized, which is superior to plus or minus 0.001.

Let’s look at figure 16 below. Fpc2 scan precision verification data.

What is the effect of the depth of field?

For image collection, we use a 10% view, and our series of scans is collected from 2.5 d geometry. After each scan, the camera refocuses, and it typically focuses on a new focal plane. Then, in each of the results, the same round features were measured. The relationship between the measurement of diameter measured on the plane and the distance of the focal plane is shown in figure 17.

Explanation: if it is within a small field of vision, fpc2 scanner as a telecentric lens simulation is there, it’s performance has been pretty steady, in this case, the “change” in the depth of the focal plane 0.300 shown in less than 0.002 “change”.

What is the source of the error?

In these measurements, we can see there are a number of error sources, including some of the error and the error is introduced in choosing a distance, and the error is in the scanner fpc3 measurement. The responsibility of the user is to explain the exact location of the edges based on the contrast of pixels. System error is introduced from the limitation of fpc4 positioning repeatability. We know that fpc5 minimum discrete positioning movement 0.0001 “; Shaft drive, however, the influence of other factors in the system (precision ball screw, friction, wind, etc.) are we considered, so we need know positioning repeatability of 0.001 “, or better, decided it was in the fpc2 scanner from introducing a single optical mechanical error. Like any microscope, if you are in the fpc2 scanners used in optical instruments, can lead to something about the image distortion, this situation is caused by some lens distortion, at the same time, can also affect the curvature of field effect.

Measurement of measurement blocks in fpc1 scanner fpc2

Let’s take a look at figure 14. Measurement of measurement blocks in fpc1 scanner fpc2.

Although we initially are ambitious, in terms of optical centering device, is very obvious in the numerical control scanner projects, although the system can be used, and then as an optical centering device, consumer level there is a limit of optical components, equipment for the practicability of this application can be very good.

We know that under the background of other methods of time to prove, from this point, it is very right — in many cases, we can use the dial indicator is our development more quickly and accurately find the center of things. Because of the setup time associated with the optical centering program, most people find it easier to use another method of centering in their daily work that we have always been sure of. The optical centering function is provided by us, as a professional tool, in some cases, it can be said that this is useful.

In figure 15, we can see that in the first image, the focal plane is the same as the measured plane. In the second image, the camera needs to be refocused to make the focal plane below the measuring plane and then on the surface of the object.

How do I validate this?

As with any measuring tool, the combination of the tool’s resolution and the techniques and techniques used to use it can achieve the ultimate precision. With such a statement, the verification data can be presented, allowing the accuracy of the numerical control scanner to be verified in a carefully controlled set of measurements.

What is the accuracy?

In figure 14, a precise set of ground 1 “metering” scans are shown. If you want to improve the image resolution, you can achieve this by lowering the working distance of the numerical control scanner. Then, if you want to measuring tool measuring gauge block, can be finished on fpc2 scanner fpc3 size, as the image resolution function (in the measurement error of pixel density) are shown in figure 16.

Desktop computers-fpc2 controller,FPC 9 operating system

Desktop computers are general-purpose computers. It’s a combination of dedicated computers and related hardware. For example, it’s like a dedicated fpc2 controller, and we call it an embedded system. The development of embedded systems is Microsoft, and if you want to use fpc8, you will need to use their embedded systems and products similar to the fpc8 embedded standard operating system.

Fpc9 is the fpc8 embedded standard, the fpc8 operating system has been divided into more than 12,000 individual components by fpc9. For those for fpc8 embedded application development partners developers, database driven to create a custom build system operating system can be used by them, we can see that each operating system is designed, and design a specific purpose. We know that the task is not simply because the right components must be selected and configured correctly. The integration application needs to create additional components. Though the system creates every product based on the database is the same, but we also know that every product is unique, and also need to build for a particular task.

Below, we see the results, the result is very happy, and this is what we want, in order to achieve this goal, we also made great efforts for this purpose, but now, we can see that everything is worth it.

The system was used by fpc3, and a version of the FPC 9 operating system was also created to support fpc8. At the same time, male chauvinism is another name we call it. We have worked closely with fpc5 developers. The system has also been tested and tested by fpc6 developer Artsoft, and they also approved the use of fpc8.

Fpc8 fpc9 machine controller

According to Newton’s law of motion (force = mass x acceleration), the result is a torque that does not have any meaning, otherwise, the machine will run.

We can see that the empirical results are consistent with the theory. In recent tests, a rise in the Z movement, a fpc3 drive machine will fail, a spindle head was promoted, when it is running at a speed of more than 185 inches per minute is, is a fpc4 control it. All of the 14 American interrupts have been shown by fpc5 models. A typical observation is 14. The computer, which shows two American variants, is replaced by a computer that allows the same machine to lift the Z head to 245 inches per minute. What is the difference between fpc6 and fpc7 performance limits? This is all due to computer changes. Time changes are displayed by one computer, while the other does not show the change in time. The results show that a better computer is a much slower computer, an older fpc8 model, and its processor is slower. Various tests indicate that the original computer capability is not affected by the performance of the machine, but the consistency of the interrupt frequency may have a significant impact on performance.

How do you solve the problem? Fpc8 fpc9 machine controller

Basically, the problem can’t be attributed to fpc8, fpc9 processor or any particular brand of computer. We need to know what the core of the problem is, and the core is the fact that industrial machine controllers use consumer electronics in the form of desktop computers. Like all consumer electronics products, in a constantly changing and brand computer, and it is also subject to the standard of standards, such as the standard stipulated in the energy star 5.0 specifications is that it needs to the standard. The design of the desktop computer is guided by these standards, and its direction is very different from the real-time control of industrial machine tools.

electronic mechanical structure

It is our purpose to understand the impact of the time change. Here, we can look at a typical example. A computer, running at 35 MHz’s interrupted frequency, has about 29 of us between the interrupt and the base time resolution, or 0.000015 seconds (1/2). If a typical electronic mechanical structure is a computer, so that every inch movement has 10000 pulse signal, then run in the 90 IPM, a signal pulse flow is needed, the signals between around 100, in essence, this is every three interrupt pulses. Now, because we add unnecessary interruptions, the extra changes are also being created. Change is the biggest time in the interruption between 27 has been known to fpc1 diagnosis, then the changes can be + / – 27 us, of course, in addition to + / – 15 we even, we can come to a conclusion, in the timing error, there may be a 42 us. From a human point of view, this seems unlikely, and the thought of it is one-millionth of a second. From a motor’s point of view, this could be a big disaster. Although fifteen percent of the changes is 15 Americans represents the basic changes in steps, but the additional changes compared to error, also has more than doubled, of course, this is also based on 42% of the time change.

We know that this in physics means useless torque. We can see that the agreement is between the time and speed of the moving footwork. A constant velocity is meant to be consistent with time. And if time changes, then it also means that the velocity will change, in other words, the acceleration we’re talking about. When you delay a step, what impact will not next step, the next step is according to the plan, you will eventually find, in a very short period of time, a big slowdown occurs, then, will happen a big acceleration.